Seriously? This much for one day? I don't think it is possible for me to do justice to the great material in this chapter. So, I'll not comment on everything that is on my mind. (If you want to dig into some thoughts I'm having about verses 38-42, google Walter Wink - the third way. You'll find a lot of great material there...and you will find yourself frustrated and encouraged and ...)
One of my favorite parts of Jesus' teachings is found here in chapter 5, verses 13-16. This is good stuff, and a great challenge to us as followers of Christ. We are salt and we are light. If we don't 'taste' good, if we've lost our saltiness, we have missed something. We should 'taste' good in the way that we live and talk in the world. We should shine because of Who lives in and through us. These things should be externally evident. But it isn't just because of the external. Salt tastes a certain way because of the chemical makeup. Light has visible qualities because of the source. In the same way, we are salty and shiny (shiny, happy people everywhere...) only because of an internal change. We can act like salt and light for a time, but if we aren't composed of a substance that creates the saltiness and light, it will not last. Jesus, through the Holy Spirit, is that internal source - He is the One that changes us. If we aren't salty and shiny, maybe we need to look internally rather than simply working on the externals.
I hope you 'taste' good to those around you and that you bring some light to someone's day today. If you follow Christ, if you have the Holy Spirit within you, you are salt and light. May we be salty and shiny people.